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What are anabolic steroids?

Anabolic steroids, also called anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs), can build muscle and improveathletic performance. People use anabolic steroids in some sports settings. They use them to boost muscle mass, performance, and endurance and to shorten recovery time between workouts.

Anabolic steroid medicines include testosterone cypionate (such as Depo-testosterone) and testosterone undecylenate (such as Andriol). AASs are synthetic versions of the primary male hormone, testosterone. They affect many parts of the body, including the muscles, bones, hair follicles, liver, kidneys, blood, immune system, reproductive system and the central nervous system.

During puberty, increases in testosterone levels enable the development of characteristics such as facial and body hair growth, increased height and muscle mass, a deepening voice, and the sex drive.Testosterone can also contribute to competitiveness, self-esteem, and aggressiveness.

 

Anabolic Steroids and Performance

 

The effects of anabolic steroids on physical performance are unclear. Well controlled, double blind studies have rendered conflicting results. In studies showing beneficial effects, body weight increased by an average of about four pounds, lean body weight by about six pounds (fat loss accounts for the discrepancy between gains in lean mass and body weight), bench press increased by about 15 pounds, and squats by about 30 pounds (these values represent the average gains for all studies showing a beneficial effect). Almost all studies have failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect on maximal oxygen consumption or endurance capacity. Anabolic steroid studies have typically lasted six to eight weeks and have usually used relatively untrained subjects.

 

Most changes in strength during the early part of training are neural: increased strength is mainly due to an improved ability to recruit motor units. Anabolic steroids affect processes associated with protein synthesis in muscle. Studies lasting six weeks (typical study length) would largely reflect neural changes and could easily miss the cellular effects of the drugs.

There are up to 32 types of anabolic steroid listed on commercial websites.

Some have only medicinal uses, such as Nebido. Anadrol is an example of a steroid with both medicinal and performance uses.

Others, such as anadur, have no therapeutic use, but athletes use them.

People choose different types for different purposes:

  • bulking steroids for building muscle

  • performance steroids for strength and endurance

  • cutting steroids for burning fat

Other reasons for use include healing and recovery and enhancement of metabolism.

For  medical  purposes, AASs can be taken:

  • by mouth

  • as pellets implanted under the skin

  • by injection

  • through the skin as a cream or gel

Oral forms are taken by mouth. They include:

  • Fluoxymesterone (Halotestin), or "Halo"

  • Mesterolone (Proviron)

  • Methandienone (Dianabol), or "Dbol"

  • Methyltestosterone (Virilon)

  • Mibolerone (Cheque)

  • Oxandrolone (Anavar, Oxandrin), or "Var"

  • Oxymetholone (Anadrol), or "Drol"

  • Stanozolol (Winstrol), or "Winny"

Injectable forms include:

  • Boldenone undecylenate (Equipoise), or "EQ"

  • Methenolone enanthate (Primobolan), or "Primo"

  • Nandrolone decanoate (Deca Durabolin), or "Deca"

  • Nandrolone phenpropionate (Durabolin), or "NPP"

  • Testosterone cypionate (Depotest)

  • Testosterone enanthate (Andro-Estro)

  • Testosterone propionate (Testex)

  • Trenbolone acetate (Finajet), or "Tren"

AASs travel through the bloodstream to the muscle tissue, where they bind to an androgen receptor. The drug can subsequently interact with the cell's DNA and stimulate the protein synthesis process that promotes cell growth.

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